L'action concrète Millennia2025 "She4Innovation", Femmes pour l'Innovation (60) a étudié les ODD en rapport avec les axes stratégiques de Millennia2025. Le parallèle était évident pour les axes Santé, Education, Egalité et Justice. L'analyse structurée a conduit les participant-e-s à considérer le leadership économique des femmes comme une clé vers l'égalité.
Les conclusions de la 65ème session de la Commission sur le statut des femmes tenue en ligne en mars 2021 confirment que les femmes restent sous-représentées dans la prise de décision et que les violences faites aux femmes sont en augmentation. Le stéréotypes de genre menacent les droits des femmes et leur participation à la vie publique. La féminisation de la pauvreté augmente terriblement et l'éradication de la pauvreté est indispensable pour l'autonomisation économique des femmes et le développement durable. Il est fait appel urgent aux hommes responsables politiques et économiques pour qu'ils modifient cette tendance et contribuent à accélérer le changement de paradigme vers l'égalité. Les hommes et les garçons doivent s'engager comme alliés de l'égalité et de la pleine inclusion des femmes dans la prise de décision.
Le WEbarometer 2020 concernant les femmes entrepreneures en Europe constate que les femmes européennes, considérant leur créativité, capacités entrepreneuriales et talents, ne sont pas suffisamment reconnues comme ressource constituant la nouvelle force motrice pour les prochaines générations européennes et appelle à de nouveaux modèles plus inclusifs pour l'Europe.
Le Parlement européen considère aussi que "le programme de travail de la Commission pour 2021 est explicite sur l'intention d'utiliser la crise comme catalyseur d'un agenda économique et social transformateur, avec les nouvelles stratégies d'égalité comme élément central".
Au niveau de la Commission européenne, "le plan d'action comprend un ensemble large et cohérent d'activités visant à lutter contre l'écart de rémunération entre les hommes et les femmes sous tous les angles possibles". Un constat inquiétant montre que seulement 2% des femmes entrepreneures ont accès à des financements pourtant accordés à 91% des hommes entrepreneurs.
L'Institut danois pour les Droits humains regrette l'absence de statistiques genrées concernant l'accès à l'internet. Il soulève l'intéressante question de l'égalité numérique et de l'inclusion des femmes dans les politiques publiques concernant l''accès aux technologies, considérant aussi qu'il est "important de reconnaître le travail que les femmes accomplissent déjà dans cet espace, ce qui leur permet d'être responsabilisées et capables d'agir comme des modèles et mentors pour inspirer les autres à suivre leur cheminement de carrière".
De même, la renommée Alan Turing Foundation constate l'inégalité des carrières dans l'Intelligence artificielle et les Sciences des données. "Cet écart d'emploi entre les sexes doit être corrigé afin que les femmes puissent pleinement participer à la force de travail de l'IA, y compris dans des rôles de leadership de premier plan dans la conception et le développement de l'IA". Dans ses travaux futurs, le projet "Women in Data Science and AI" de l'Institut Alan Turing s'appuiera sur cette recherche afin d'explorer les facteurs à l'origine de la fracture entre les sexes en matière d'IA."
Tous les pays s'impliquent dans la lutte pour l'égalité : les Jeunes Femmes d'Afrique revendiquent aussi la justice économique, un co-leadership intergénérationnel en ajoutant, selon leur contexte, de faire taire les armes.
L'ONU Femmes s'interroge sur l'opportunité d'un revenu universel de base (UBI) qui pourrait fournir une protection indispensable, notamment aux femmes, face aux crises économiques, environnementales et sanitaires, comme le COVID-19.
Dans son rapport 2021, OXFAM considère que "Nous sommes à un moment charnière de l'histoire humaine. Nous ne pouvons pas retourner dans le monde brutal, inégal et insoutenable dans lequel le coronavirus nous a trouvés. L'humanité a un talent incroyable, une immense richesse et une imagination infinie. Nous devons mettre ces atouts au service de la création d’une économie plus équitable et durable qui profite à tous, et pas seulement à quelques privilégiés. Cela aidera à construire un avenir qui ne sera pas dirigé par des milliardaires, mais par des voix diverses et multiples, collectivement, et fondées sur les principes de la démocratie et des droits humains".
L'EIGE explique que "réduire l'écart entre les sexes dans les domaines de l'enseignement des sciences, de la technologie, de l'ingénierie et des mathématiques (STEM) pourrait contribuer à réduire le déficit de compétences, à accroître l'emploi et la productivité des femmes et à réduire la ségrégation professionnelle. En fin de compte, cela favoriserait la croissance économique grâce à une productivité plus élevée et à une activité accrue sur le marché du travail", expliquant même que "combler les écarts entre les sexes dans l'enseignement des STEM aurait un impact positif sur l'emploi. L'emploi total dans l'UE augmenterait de 850.000 à 1.200.000 d'ici 2050 - et donc comblerait la fracture des salaires entre hommes et femmes -. Ces emplois sont principalement prévus à long terme, car les taux d'emploi n'augmenteront qu'après que davantage de femmes qui étudient les STEM auront terminé leurs études." L'EIGE confirme les bénéfice de l'égalité des genres dans l'Union européenne : "une augmentation des salaires des femmes contribue à réduire l’écart de taux d’activité, ce qui peut expliquer en partie les effets positifs sur l’emploi associés à l’amélioration de l’activité des femmes sur le marché du travail. Les impacts sur le PIB par habitant sont plus importants lorsque l'écart de taux d'activité diminue. Le PIB par habitant devrait augmenter de 0,8 à 1,5% en 2030 et de 3,2 à 5,5% en 2050 (une augmentation du PIB pouvant atteindre 280 milliards d'euros d'ici 2030 et 1.490 milliards d'euros d'ici 2050)."
Le rapport "Refuge" de la Co-operative Bank met en garde contre la violence économique qui "est une forme courante de violence domestique. Il s’agit d’un abuseur restreignant la capacité d’une personne à acquérir, utiliser et conserver de l’argent ou d’autres ressources économiques" tout en proposant un code de bonnes pratiques.
L'EIGE, encore, dans son rapport "Numérisation et avenir du travail, indice d'égalité des sexes 2020", analyse que, "malgré la croissance globale du secteur des technologies de l'information et des communications (TIC) au cours des dernières décennies et la forte demande de compétences en TIC sur le marché du travail, seuls 20% des diplômés dans les domaines liés aux TIC sont des femmes et la part des femmes dans les emplois des TIC est de 18% (une diminution de 4 points de pourcentage (pp) depuis 2010). Au delà des TIC, un assez frappant fossé entre les sexes existe entre les scientifiques et les ingénieurs des secteurs de haute technologie susceptibles d'être mobilisés dans la conception et le développement de nouvelles technologies numériques. Le potentiel inexploité des femmes scientifiques talentueuses, parallèlement à la recherche non sexiste, empêche la réalisation du plein potentiel des progrès technologiques et scientifiques".
L'Initiative de l'OCDE sur l'égalité des sexes "examine les obstacles existants à l'égalité des sexes dans l'éducation, l'emploi et l'entrepreneuriat". "0,87 dollar, c'est ce que gagne une femme travaillant à plein temps pour chaque dollar ou euro qu'un homme gagne, en moyenne dans les pays de l'OCDE. Cet écart salarial entre les hommes et les femmes est un problème tenace. Nous savons maintenant que les femmes ont fait d'énormes progrès en matière d'éducation et de participation au marché du travail au cours des dernières décennies. Alors pourquoi l'écart de rémunération entre les sexes persiste-t-il ? "
> Women’s full and effective participation and decision-making in public life, as well as the elimination of violence, for achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls, Commission on the Status of Women 65th session (61)
"6. The Commission expresses concern that women remain significantly underrepresented in all aspects of decision-making and that violence against women in public life is widespread, while organized opposition to women’s participation in public life is sometimes strong and violent. It notes that failure to expedite women’s participation and decision-making in public life and the elimination of violence against women will make it impossible to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. (Based on E/CN.6/2021/3, para 3 and 7)".
13. The Commission recognizes that negative social norms and gender stereotypes can threaten women’s rights and participation in public life, and that efforts to increase understanding of gender equality and women’s rights to participate in public life and decision-making, including the support and political will of male leaders, are vital for accelerating changes to social norms. (Based on E/CN.6/2021/3, para 47 and 50)
14. The Commission expresses concern that the feminization of poverty persists and emphasizes that the eradication of poverty in all its forms and dimensions, including extreme poverty, is indispensable for women’s economic empowerment and sustainable development. (Based on CSW Agreed Conclusions)
15. The Commission also recognizes the importance of the full engagement of men and boys as agents and beneficiaries of change, and as strategic partners and allies in the promotion of women’s full and effective participation and decision-making in public life, as well as the elimination of violence, for achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls. (Based on CSW Agreed Conclusions). […].
> WEbarometer 2020, A Survey of Women Entrepreneurs in Europe, WEgate Project (62)
"The WEbarometer offers an opportunity to look into a mirror that reflects the current business sentiment of women entrepreneurs across Europe. Using the data from the WEbarometer, we will be able to advocate for tailored business support relating to issues such as access to finance, digital skills, legal advocacy and start-up assistance. Such intelligence will also inform policymakers about the critical challenges facing women entrepreneurs in today’s business environment and how such challenges might be addressed. We will also be able to promote political actions to strengthen women’s involvement and status in business, and enhance the active participation of women entrepreneurs in the European economy.
Women make up 52% of the total European population, but only 34.4% of the European Union (EU) self-employed and 30% of start-up entrepreneurs. Given their creativity, entrepreneurial capacities and talents, they are an under-utilised resource that could become the new driving force for the next generation of Europe. The ambition for the WEbarometer is that it will become a permanent ‘spokeswoman’ at a European-level, as part of the WEgate project that mobilises women into a larger ecosystem based on networking, shared best practices, tailored mentoring and training.
With this much needed support for women entrepreneurs, collectively we can create new models of behaviour for future generations, and we can definitely look forward to a better and more inclusive Europe."
> Ten issues to watch in 2021, In-depth analysis, European Parliament, Etienne Bassot (63)
"The Commission's 2021 work programme is explicit about the intention to use the crisis as a catalyst for a transformative economic and social agenda, with the new equality strategies as a central plank. It has also promised to ensure that the looming economic crisis will not become a social one. However, past crises and experiences with gender mainstreaming illustrate that equality policy can be perceived to clash with other priorities. An equality perspective can easily end up being marginalised or overlooked if it is not factored in from the outset and monitored by means of clear targets, impact assessments and dedicated funding. One obstacle is the lack of disaggregated equality data crucial to design effective policy and track outcomes, particularly for racialised and ethnic minorities, since many countries are reluctant to collect this data. Researchers have also raised questions about EU institutions' capacity to ensure that equality is prioritised and mainstreamed. "
> Tackling the gender pay gap, European Commission, 20.11.2017 (64)
"Gender equality is one of the fundamental values of the European Union. Yet, it is not a reality at work. Women in the EU, across the economy, earn on average over 16% less per hour than men do. This gender pay gap has been plateauing over the last 5 years. At the current rate of changes, it would only be closed at the breach of the next millennium. The recent stagnation raises questions as to the need to strengthen and adapt existing initiatives: gender inequalities in the labour market have been contained, but not erased".
"The Action Plan includes a broad and coherent set of activities to tackle the gender pay gap from all possible angles, rather than singling out only one factor or cause. These activities will mutually reinforce each other.
Eight main strands of action have been identified:
1- Improving the application of the equal pay principle;
2- Combating segregation in occupations and sectors;
3- Breaking the glass ceiling: initiatives to combat vertical segregation;
4- Tackling the care penalty;
5- Better valorising women's skills, efforts and responsibilities;
6- Fighting the fog: uncovering inequalities and stereotypes;
7- Alerting and informing about the gender pay gap;
8- Enhancing partnerships to tackle the gender pay gap;
To be effective, synergies will be needed between measures taken by key stakeholders at European, at national and at corporate level".
> Addressing the Gender dimensions of business and Human rights: A summary report from three thematic gender learning exchanges on the digital transition, national action plans and feminist approaches, 2021, The Danish Institute for Human Rights (65)
"Discussing effective strategies to integrate gender into internet access and digital equality discussions and developments, participants homed in on the value of supporting fellow women through a variety of mentorship structures, noting that this leads to representation, which is essential in ensuring that policies in place around internet access are gender responsive and bring gender issues to the forefront. There is also a need for awareness raising, particularly as relates to career opportunities in tech to bridge the digital divide and on gender-related issues (such as violence) to facilitate relevant policy efforts. In addition, digital literacy and security training is essential in ensuring that more women are active on the internet. At the same time, it is important to recognise the work that women are already doing in this space, which will allow them to feel empowered and able to act as role models to inspire others to follow their career paths.
Turning to challenges, it was noted that there are larger problems with internet affordability, which causes the ripple effect of barriers to access and training. Poor physical infrastructure was also listed as a challenge. Participants noted that policies about internet access and affordability are in general not gender responsive, and participants had heard the argument ‘if it is neutral, it is inclusive’. Other challenges noted included online sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), leading to households not allowing women to use smartphones or social media; male-dominated ICT centres; and women and girls having no time to use the internet and gain capacity due to a number of other responsibilities. In support of the latter, participants provided examples of ICT centres that are open at times when women are not able to go there because of other responsibilities. Free public internet in cities only made available in downtown areas between 6pm and midnight, rendering it practically useless for women who will not be there to take advantage of it; and affordable data packages only available after midnight when only very few women will be able to take advantage of it. Finally, it was noted that data is lacking about women’s access to internet, which makes it difficult to assess the successes or failures of policies, evidencing a clear need for better and more disaggregated data."
> Where are the women?, Mapping the gender job gap in AI, Erin Young, Judy Wajcman, Laila Sprejer, The Alan Turing Foundation, Public Policy Programme, Women in Data Science and AI project (66)
"Our research, based on a unique dataset of AI professionals, indicates that data science and AI careers in the UK and globally are heavily gendered. There is persistent structural inequality in these fields associated with extensive disparities in skills, status, pay, seniority, industry, attrition rates, educational background, and even self-confidence levels. This gender job gap needs rectifying so that women can fully participate in the AI workforce, including in powerful leadership roles in the design and development of AI.
Our findings are consistent with existing work on the AI gender gap. They require urgent attention given the disproportionate impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on women which risks widening the gender gap in the tech industry (Little, 2020). As Leavy (2018: 16) says: ‘advancing women’s careers in the area of Artificial Intelligence is not only a right in itself; it is essential to prevent advances in gender equality supported by decades of feminist thought being undone’.
This is not only about issues of economic opportunity and social justice, but also crucially about AI innovation, fairness and ethics. As evidence mounts of gender, race and other social biases embedded in algorithms, there is the risk that AI systems will amplify existing inequities. We cannot even begin to remedy this, let alone take advantage of the huge potential of AI, without first having a data and AI workforce who are representative of the people those systems are meant to serve.
Whilst it is clear that there is a worrying lack of women in the data science and AI fields, there is a scarcity of detailed, intersectional, publicly available demographic information about the data and AI workforce. This is primarily due to the unwillingness of large technology firms to disclose their own diversity data. The lack of transparency has serious implications for Government policymaking around technological advancement and equity, and for labour market policies.39 It is crucial that we develop a better understanding of the dynamics of the problem. This policy report, in both summary and full form, provides a first step in building a robust evidence base to comprehend the dearth of women working in such fields, and its relationship with biased AI. In our future work, the Alan Turing Institute’s Women in Data Science and AI project will build upon this research in order to explore the factors driving the AI gender gap."
> Africa Young Women B+25 Manifesto: FEM-Forster, Enable, Mobilize: Enough is Enough, It's time to co-lead now, Pioneered by African Youth Union Envoy (67)
The Manifesto provides a platform of a common set of demands for the achievement of gender equality and equity as well as Agenda 2063 and Agenda 2030. It allows young women to articulate their concerns and secure a clear and unreserved commitment by the Generation Equality Forum and Action Coalitions Leadership, which blueprint will inform policies, institutional processes and intersectional programmes and measures. These demands will ensure that girls and young women are able to participate actively, equally and effectively at all levels of social, educational, economic, political, cultural, civic life and leadership as well as scientific endeavours.
The process of developing and promoting the Manifesto also built upon the experiences of young women which ensures the manifesto is owned by a broad constituency. Young women are thereby empowered to use their voices to bring more youth into this movement. Participants of the five regional consultations came from across 45 countries.
> Demands: Economic Justice; Criminalize gender based violence; End gender discrimination; Access to justice and protection; Sexual and reproductive health rights; Mental health and well-being; Inclusive, equitable and quality education; Digital justice; Silencing the guns; Intergenerational co-leadership;"
> Gender-smart financing, European Commission, DG GROW (68)
- Access to finance for women-led businesses
Men: 91% - Women; 2%.
What are the drivers of the problem?
- Women are 50% less likeky than men to be self-employed;
- Women are more affected by the covid-10 pandemics;
- Women are less likely to ask for external financing;
- Women are more prone to invest in sustainable and social areas;
Tools in the new multiannual financial framework (MFF) 2021-2027:
- The InvestEU Programme ) single EU investment programme;
- European Innovation Council (EIC) under Horizon Europe.
> Universal Basic Income (UBI): Potential and limitations from a gender perspective, UN Women, 2021 (69)
"Over the past decades, a universal basic income (UBI) has repeatedly been put forward as a means to address increasing labour market precarity, jobless growth and rising poverty and inequality. Most recently, proponents have argued that UBI could provide much-needed protection in the face of economic, environmental and health crises, such as COVID-19. The implications of UBI for gender equality have received insufficient attention in these debates - despite the fact that feminists have long discussed its pros and cons. Some feminists hold that an unconditional income independent of paid work would enhance women’s agency in families, households, the workplace and the community, with particular benefit for those facing multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination. Others caution that, in a climate of fiscal tightening and austerity, UBI could be used to justify the rollback of state responsibility and funding for other essential support measures, including care services, housing, education and health care. Building on their contributions, this policy brief discusses the potential and limitations of UBI from a gender perspective and points to some of the specific design features that policymakers need to consider to make UBI work for women and transgender and gender-diverse people".
> The Inequality Virus, Bringing together a world torn apart by coronavirus through a fair, just and sustainable economy, OXFAM, 01.2021 (70)
"The coronavirus pandemic has exposed, fed off and exacerbated existing inequalities of wealth, gender and race. This crisis has laid bare the problems with our flawed global economic system and other forms of structural oppression that see a wealthy few thrive, while people in poverty, many women, Black people, Afro-descendants, Indigenous Peoples, and historically marginalized and oppressed communities around the world, struggle to survive.
We are at a pivotal point in human history. We cannot return to the brutal, unequal and unsustainable world that the coronavirus found us in. Humanity has incredible talent, huge wealth and infinite imagination. We must put these assets to work to create a more equal and sustainable economy that benefits all, not just the privileged few. This will help build a future that is not led by billionaires, but by diverse and multiple voices, collectively, and founded in the principles of democracy and human rights."
> Closing the gender gap in STEM education can foster economic growth - Economic benefits of gender equality in the EU - EIGE (71)
"How gender equality in STEM education leads to economic growth
Reducing the gender gap in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education areas could help reduce skills gap, increase employment and productivity of women and reduce occupational segregation. Ultimately this would foster economic growth via both higher productivity and increased labour market activity.
However, despite good employment opportunities and highly productive jobs in this area, there is currently a low proportion of women studying and graduating in STEM subjects.
Closing gender gaps in STEM education would have a positive impact on employment. Total EU employment would rise by 850,000 to 1,200,000 by 2050. These jobs are forecasted mostly in the long term as employment rates will rise only after more women studying STEM finish their education.
The new jobs are likely to be highly productive because women graduating from STEM often progress into high value added positions in sectors such as information and communication or financial and business services.
Higher productivity of STEM jobs is likely to result into higher wages. Remarkably, the study shows a closure of the gender wage gap by 2050."
"The study on the economic benefits of gender equality is unique in the EU context. It is the first of its kind to use a robust econometric model to estimate a broad range of macroeconomic benefits of gender equality in several broad areas such as education, labour market activity and wages. The overall results of the study show that more gender equality would lead to:
- between 6.3 million and 10.5 million additional jobs in 2050, with about 70 % of these jobs taken by women;
- positive GDP impacts that grow over time;
- an increase in GDP per capita of up to nearly 10 % in 2050."
> Removing gender inequalities in labour market activity and pay boosts economic growth - Benefits of Gender Equality in the European Union - EIGE 2021 (72)
"Increasing women’s participation in the work force and closing the pay gap between women and men will have a positive impact on economic growth in the European Union. Despite recent improvements, there are still persistent gender gaps in labour market activity and pay, which result in lower employment rates for women, potentially limiting EU growth. Addressing these issues is crucial to meet the Europe 2020 target to achieve an overall employment rate of women and men of at least 75 % by 2020.
A study from the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) on the "economic benefits of gender equality" puts forth robust evidence showing the positive impacts of reducing gender inequalities in the labour market.
Gender equality measures that can reduce gender gaps include:
- providing childcare and other care provision;
- changes in parental leave pay and conditions;
- promotion and support of part time and flexible working arrangements;
- legal provisions and policies regarding equal pay and working conditions;
- removing gender segregation across sectors and occupations;
- reducing the number of career breaks among women;
- promoting women into senior positions."
"Closing the activity rate gap would significantly increase the level of employment. The study forecasts an increase between 3.5 million and 6 million jobs in 2050 as a result of additional women entering the labour force. An increase in the supply of labour will also enable sectors that were previously labour constrained (e.g. due to a shortage of skilled workers) to increase potential output.
Compared to the effects of closing the activity rate gap, the effects of closing the wage gap on the employment of women are relatively small. On the one hand, higher wage rates would initially encourage more women to enter the labour market, leading to an increase in productivity and employment rates. On the other hand, higher labour costs are likely to drive firms to reduce their demand for labour and offer fewer jobs.
However, an increase in women’s salaries contributes to reducing the activity rate gap, possibly accounting for part of the positive employment effects associated with improving the labour market activity of women.
The impacts on GDP per capita are largest when the activity rate gap decreases. GDP per capita is estimated to increase by 0.8-1.5 % in 2030 and by 3.2-5.5 % in 2050 (an increase in GDP of up to EUR 280 billion by 2030 and up to EUR 1 490 billion by 2050)."
> Know economic abuse, 2020 Report, Ellie But, Refuge, The co-operative bank (73)
"Economic abuse is a common form of domestic abuse. It involves an abuser restricting a person’s ability to acquire, use and maintain money or other economic resources.
This could include refusing to let their partner open a bank account, controlling how they use their income, preventing them working or being in education or building up debt in their partner’s name. Power and control are central to all forms of domestic abuse, and economic abuse is no exception. Restricting a partner’s access to money, forcing them into debt, refusing to allow access to resources like a car or a mobile phone are all forms of control that reduces their partner’s ability to make their own choices and live autonomous lives. Economic abuse is commonly perpetrated alongside other forms of domestic abuse as part of a pattern of coercive control."
"Experience of economic abuse – key findings
- Economic abuse is rarely the only form of abuse a perpetrator uses and instead many survivors experience a range of types of abuse as part of a pattern of control and coercion. In response to the survey 80% of survivors (89% of women and 80% of men) have experienced emotional, sexual or physical abuse in addition to economic abuse.
- The ways in which perpetrators abuse and exert control economically varies widely, with most survivors experiencing several forms of economic abuse. 19% of survivors experienced abuse related to accessing money in bank accounts, 25% had experienced abuse related to spending and credit, 17% had experienced abuse related to education and employment and 14% of survivors had limited or no control over their own income.
- A third of survivors suffer in silence, telling no one about the economic abuse they are experiencing."
"This report fully details the study’s methodology, insights and findings and builds on the Code of Practice that was implemented in 2018 to inform a five-point plan of action which further addresses the issue of economic abuse".
> Digitalisation and the future of work, Gender Equality Index 2020 - EIGE, 2020 (74)
"Digitalisation and the future of work: Gendered patterns in use of new technologies
Women and men are online to a more or less equal extent: 78 % of women and 80 % of men use the internet daily. However, older women and women with lower education lag behind. In addition, 25 % of women aged 55–74 (compared with 21 % of men) and 27 % of women with low education (21 % of men) have never had the chance to use the internet. Men are more likely to participate in professional networks, download software and look for online learning materials. Women outpace men in social networking and searches for information about education and training.
In the EU, young women and men are the most digitally skilled generation and benefit equally from basic and above basic digital skills. However, at a later age, the gender divide is widening. Men are more advantaged in terms of the digital skills necessary to thrive in a digitalised world of work than women, particularly among older people (aged 55 or older). Women also experience bigger obstacles than men in acquiring and upgrading digital skills.
Despite the overall growth of the information and communications technology (ICT) sector in recent decades and the high demand for ICT skills in the labour market, only 20 % of graduates in ICT-related fields are women and the share of women in ICT jobs is 18 % (a decrease of 4 percentage points (p.p.) since 2010). Beyond ICT, a striking gender gap exists among scientists and engineers in the high-technology sectors likely to be mobilised in the design and development of new digital technologies. The untapped potential of talented female scientists, alongside gender-blind research, prevents the realisation of the full potential of technological and scientific advances.
> The gender pay gap: A stubborn problem, Gender Equality, OECD Better Policies for better Lives (75)
"The OECD Gender Initiative examines existing barriers to gender equality in education, employment, and entrepreneurship. This website monitors the progress made by governments to promote gender equality in both OECD and non- OECD countries and provides good practices based on analytical tools and reliable data."
"0,87 dollar, that's how much a woman working full time makes for every 1 dollar or euro a man makes, on average across the OECD. This gender wage gap is a stubborn problem. And it get even wider when we talk about the total earnings women and men take home in a year, because women tend to spend fewer hours in paid work than men do. Now we know that women have made huge gains in education and in labour force participation over the past few decades. So why does the gender pay gap persist?"
"The OECD Gender Data Portal includes selected indicators shedding light on gender inequalities in education, employment, entrepreneurship, health, development and Governance, showing how far we are from achieving gender equality and where actions is most needed. The data cover OECD member countries, as well as partner economies including Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, and South Africa."
(61) Commission on the Status of Women Sixty-fifth session, 15-26 March 2021, "Women’s full and effective participation and decision-making in public life, as well as the elimination of violence, for achieving gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls, Draft agreed conclusions", 03,02,2021, 6 pages.
(62) Thomas M. Cooney, WEgate Project, "WEbarometer 2020, A Surbey ov Women Entrepreneurs in Europe", EU COSME programme, 2020, 20 pages. https://wegate.eu/sites/default/files/wegate_webarometer_2020.pdf
(63) European Parliament, Etienne Bassot, Members'Research Service, "Ten issues to watch in 2021, In-depth analysis", PE659.436,01.2021, 28 pages. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2021/659436/EPRS_IDA(2021)659436_EN.pdf
(64) Tackling the gender pay gap, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee, EU Action Plan 2017-2019, 20.11.2017, 16 pages.
(65) Nora Götzmann and Kayla Winarsky Green, The Danish Institute for Human Rights, "Addressing the Gender dimensions of business and Human rights: A summary report from three thematic gender learning exchanges on the digital transition, national action plans and feminist approaches", 2021, 31 pages. https://www.humanrights.dk/sites/humanrights.dk/files/media/document/Addressing%20the%20Gender%20Dimensions%20of%20Business%20and%20Human%20Rights_2020.pdf
(66) Erin Young, Judy Wajcman, Laila Sprejer, "Where are the women?, Mapping the gender job gap in AI", Policy Briefing – Full Report, The Alan Turing Foundation, Public Policy Programme, Women in Data Science and AI project, 62 pages.
(67) Africa Young Women B+25 Manifesto: FEM-Forster, Enable, Mobilize: Enough is Enough, It's time to co-lead now, Pioneered by African Youth Union Envoy, 11.2020, 16 pages.
(68) Agnieszka Wojdyr, Access to finance, Gender-smart financing, European Commission, DG GROW, 2020, 6 pages.
(69) Universal Basic Income (UBI): Potential and limitations from a gender perspective, UN Women, Policy Brief n°22, 2021.
(70) The Inequality Virus, Bringing together a world torn apart by coronavirus through a fair, just and sustainable economy, OXFAM, 01.2021, 83 pages.
(71) Closing the gender gap in STEM education can foster economic growth - Economic benefits of gender equality in the EU - EIGE, 4 pages.
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